A the fourth of which being the first imam of shia muslims. Rabbinic law was a system of law akin at many points to arabian custom, founded on the same monotheistic principles and imbued with the same spirit as islam. May 14, 2014 islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools alfiqh ala almadhahib alarbaah abd alpahman aljaziri translator. Hanafi school is the first and the most popular schools in muslim law. This is one of the most clear and precise books of comparative islamic jurisprudence. Pdf al shafi i s risala download full pdf book download. Each claims to have derived them from the following four sources. It is distinguished from the other schools through its placing less reliance on mass oral traditions as a source of legal knowledge. However, asking for the evidences is a tall order, as entire volumes of books exist for daleels on matters of fiqh within a school of thought, it would be insane to do that for every ruling for every school. Besides these four schools, there had been certain other personal schools of the sunni muslims. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools is a translation of volume i of alfiqh ala almadhahib alarba ah, by the azhari scholar sheikh abd alrahman aljaziri 18821941. Dealing with the forms of worship ibadat, this work offers an indepth discussion of ritual purity taharah, ritual prayers salat, including funeral. Hanifi maliki shafii hanbali all are considered legitimate by the others.
The sunnah is comprised of the hadith reports of what mohammad did and said and the sira authoritative biographies of mohammad four schools in sunni islam, there are four doctrinal schools of law. The difficulty in grasping the significance of the schools of law is evidenced by vacillation in translating the term madhhab. Pdf the four eponyms of sunni islamic jurisprudence. Although there are many irreconcilable differences in the four sunni schools, in the main, however, they agree on the fundamental bases of their doctrines and laws. This paper thus examines the early formation of the four schools of islamic law, recounts brief biographical accounts of their founders, and. The following article will give an overview of the gene. The sunni schools of law are named for figures of the later eighth of early to midninth centuries c. The five schools of islamic thought inquiries about shi. These schools, referred to respectively as the hanbali, hanafi, maliki, and shafei, are followed by different muslim states either entirely or in part. This is probably bilal philips bestselling work on the various schools of thought in islam, including detailed facts, insight, and commentary on the four major madhabs as well as. The sunnis divided into four great schools of jurisprudence which grew up in the second and third centuries of islam. Dec 17, 2018 following is an edit from a previous answer.
The following discussion and verdict of the foremost hanafi jurist and hadith scholar of his age known as imam qasim ibn qu. In addition, there are several differences within sunni islam and shia islam. Muslim men of religion are experts in the law, and every one has been trained in the law of one or another school. The shia school of thought on the other hand, continued its growth and progress after imam ali through his descendants who were connected to each other through a chain of narration and knowledge.
The four schools of fiqh jurisprudence attributed to four imams abu hanifa, malik bin anas, al shafie, and ahmad bin hanbal, are better known as scholars of religious sciences, do not represent diffe. Within sunni islam, there are four schools of jurisprudence that offer alternative interpretations of legal decisions affecting the lives of muslims. This essay refers only to sharia law as found in the sunni islamic tradition. The sunni follow any one of four major schools on jurisprudence founded by imams ibn hanbal, abu hanifa, malek, and elshafei, scholars of the ninth to eleventh centuries. The relationship between at least the sunni schools of jurisprudence and the conflict.
Some of these practices are attributed to the different schools of islamic law the shafii, the hanbali, the maliki and the hanafi. On the contrary, sophisticated mechanisms were available which not only permitted qualified individuals to derive the shariah from the quran and sunnah on their own authority, but actually obliged. Some of the notes that a student took from an almaghrib class called the divine link shows the differences in rulings for prayer. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools. By the end of the eleventh century four schools of islamic jurisprudence emerged, each named after its leading interpreter.
The significance of the sunni schools of law in islamic. The four eponyms of sunni islamic jurisprudence article pdf available in international journal of civic 104. Fundamentals of the sunni schools of law diana zacharias about 90 per cent of the muslim people in the world are sunnites. Islamic law within sunni islam, there are four schools of jurisprudence that offer alternative interpretations of legal decisions affecting the lives of muslims. Thus, the schools of muslim law can be broadly classified into two categories. These are the wellknown four schools, but there were many more in the past. Islamic background in islamic faith, law and religion have developed a unique and very elementary association between them. Even if sunni jurists have rejected ijtihad and developed istihsan or. Why is the jurisprudence fiqh of sunni muslims different.
The four primary sunni schools are the hanafi, shafii, maliki and hanbali rites. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools is a translation of volume i of alfiqh ala almadhahib alarbaah by the azhari scholar sheikh abd alrahman aljaziri 18821941. For those interested in the topic of comparative fiqh, this is work is a must to have. Having oral sex with ones wife is allowed but is ghusl wajib. Tariq 1 islamic jurisprudence premid assignment 2 fatima tariq ms. Over that span of time, various schools of jurisprudence have emerged, each with. The sunni follow any one of four major schools on jurisprudence founded by. And if their having a skin contact falling short of sexual intercourse.
The four prominent schools of islamic law are named after their founders and are called the hanafiyya, the malikiyya, the shafiyya, and the hanbaliyya schools of religious law. The framing of islamic law in the first four centuries of islam is of great significance to scholars. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools is a translation of volume i of alfiqh aala almadhahib alarba ah, by the azhari scholar sheikh aabd alrahman aljaziri 18821941. The epistle on legal theory is the oldest surviving arabic work on islamic legal theory and the foundational document of islamic jurisprudence. It teaches all of the aspects and categories of islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools that are followed by the majority of muslims. During this period, the islamic diaspora was in the earliest part of its development, establishing its identity and developing the foundations of its knowledge principles. Although a number of other jurists also became popular during their times, only the above four are now recognised by the vast majority of sunni muslims. Each of them struggled to interpret the few quranic verses on womens dress and to name with certainty those body parts that were to be concealed. Islamic jurispudence according to the four sunni schools.
Sunni jurists, instead of using ijtihad, developed istihsan and istislah, two very similar methods which consist of favoring a qiyas over another. Egypts school in fustat was a branch of medinas school of law and followed such. Apr 29, 2015 unlike previous works on islamic law, which offer a medieval perspective, islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools is unique in providing the four legal views of ibadat or acts of worship, according to the interpretations of more recent traditionalists trained at alazhar university. The four schools of jurisprudence rely mostly on analogy as a way to formulate legal rulings, and they also give different weight to the sayings of. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools is a translation of the first volume classic work of imam jaziris al fiqh ala madhahib al arbaah. Its name comes from the word sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the islamic prophet muhammad. By the year 250h, the four sunni schools of thought were being popularized and patronized during the abbasid caliphate. Sunni islam is essentially divided into four orthodox schools of law, each having its own, highly developed doctrine. Sunni islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely, hanafi, maliki, shafii, hanbali. All four schools of sunni islamic law hanafi, maliki, shafii, and hanbali, as well as the other main schools of shia islamic law al. For coverage of the shia interpretatations of sharia law, the book an introduction to shii islam. The hanafiyyah school is the first of the four orthodox sunni schools of law. The others are no longer known and these four became the basic common four schools of law followed by the muslim world.
Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia. Islamic law was formed from the quran and the sunnah the way of the prophet. Well, sunni muslims believe in four califs after the holy prophet s. This study compares the theory of the four roots of the law developed by muslim jurists in the eighth and ninth centuries with the jurisprudential bases of the babylonian talmud. These schools are named after abu hanifa, malik bin anas, alshafii, and ahmad ibn hanbal, respectively. A madhhab is a school of thought within fiqh islamic jurisprudence. The four schools of law in islam understanding islam. D, only four schools, discussed below, were given recognition. The origin of islamic law and its evolution and the four schools of law mathhabs are discussed in this work along with the reasons for differences among them. Shiites have their own schools, notably the jafari. Four schools of jurisprudence post navigation fatwa on oral sex. Four main schools of interpretation, usually determined by country.
This phenomenon has seldom failed to arouse ourinterest, though it has consistently eluded our understanding. These four great jurists and theologians tried to systemise the islamic law into a comprehensive rational system which covered all possible legal situations. The history and doctrines of twelver shiism by moojan momen has been recommended as a good source of information. In sunni sect, there are four major schools of muslim law which are as follows. The book details the four roots of law quran, sunnah, ijma, and qiyas while. Dealing with the forms of worship ibadat, this work offers an in depth discussion of ritual purity taharah, ritual prayers salat, including funeral. These laws relate to religious worship, prohibitions, and all contracts and obligations that arise in social life such as inheritance, marriage, divorce, punishments, conduct of war and the. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools is a translation of volume i of alfiqh ala almadhahib alarba ah, by the azhari scholar sheikh abd. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools book. Pdf the background and formation of the four schools of. Dealing with the forms of worship ibadat, this work offers an indepth discussion of ritual purity taharah, ritual prayers salat, including funeral prayers and the practice of visiting the. Sunni islam is essentially divided into four orthodox schools of law, each having.
The background and formation of the four schools of islamic law. Islamic jurisprudence according to the four sunni schools alfiqh ala almadhahib alarbaah abd alpahman aljaziri translator. One of the more interesting phenomena in islamic religious history is the development of the schools of law. Islamic jurisprudence according to four sunni schools by. Qiyas, a method of jurisprudence embraced mostly by sunni schools, consists of deriving laws from analogies in the quran or sunna. However, they respect all the fourteen infallibles not sure about how they believe in imam mahdi aj. The four schools of islamic law english bilal philips. It developed the exegesis of the quran through a method of analogical reasoning known as qiyas. This school of the sunni muslims is named after its founder abu hanifa and is the most popular school of muslim law. The evolution of the four schools did not stifle, as some orientalists have suggested, the capacity for the refinement or extension of positive law. Pdf four schools of sunni law fatima tariq academia.1032 300 390 678 745 439 904 589 813 179 688 518 150 1423 1307 1127 1405 277 1437 1372 1295 844 1359 294 469 326 1097 1382 141 1071 1296 1336 313 373 342 644 138